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PALS Research

 

Reading Research

Allor, J.H., Fuchs, D. & Mathes, P. (2001). Do students with and without lexical retrieval weaknesses respond differently to instruction? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34(3), 264-275.

Students with poor phonological awareness and with (or without) lexical retrieval weaknesses participated in generally effective instruction. Children with both poor phonological awareness and lexical retrieval weaknesses were least likely to benefit from the instruction.

Barton-Arwood, S.M., Wehby, J.M., & Falk, K.B. (2005). Reading instruction for elementary-age students with emotional and behavioral disorders: Academic and behavioral outcomes. Exceptional Children, 72(1), 7-27.

Dion, E., Morgan, P.L., Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L.S. (in press). Evidence based early literacy programs. Exceptionality

A review of evidence-based early literacy programs.

Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L.S. (l998). Researchers and teachers working together to adapt instruction for diverse learners. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 13, 126-137.

Summarizes the research program on reading PALS, along with the research-to-practice model, by which researchers and teachers collaboratively developed and tested PALS.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L.S., Al Otaiba, S., Thompson, A., Yen, L., McMaster, K.N., Svenson, E., & Yang, N.J. (2001). K-PALS: Helping kindergartners with reading readiness: Teachers and researchers in partnerships. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33 (4), 76-80.

Describes the kindergarten reading PALS methods.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L.S., & Burish, P. (2000). Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: An evidence-based practice to promote reading achievement. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15, 85-91.

Describes the reading PALS procedures for students at grades 2-6.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L.S., Mathes, P.G., & Martinez, E. (2002). Preliminary evidence on the social standing of students with learning disabilities in PALS and No-PALS classrooms. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 17(4), 205-215.

Results from an experimental field trial suggested that students with learning disabilities in PALS classes enjoyed greater social acceptance than students with learning disabilities in non-PALS classes.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L.S., Mathes, P.G., & Simmons, D.C. (l997). Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: Making classrooms more responsive to diversity. American Educational Research Journal, 34, 174-206.

Reports findings of a major experimental study on the efficacy of reading PALS at grades 2-6; findings showed strong effects for students with learning disabilities, as well as for students with low- and average-achievement levels, on a variety of reading measures.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L.S., Thompson, A., Al Otaiba, S., Yen, L., Yang, N., & Braun, M. (2002). Exploring the importance of reading programs for kindergartners with disabilities in mainstream classrooms. Exceptional Children, 68(3), 295-311

An experimental field trial of Kindergarten PALS showed that the program helped about 50% of young children with disabilities in mainstream classrooms.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L.S., Thompson, A., Al Otaiba, S., Yen, L., Yang, N.J., Braun, M., & O’Connor, R. (2001). Is reading important in reading readiness programs? A randomized field trial with teachers as program implementers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 251-267.

Describes a study examining the effectiveness of PALS with kindergarten children; results provide evidence that PALS helps children get off to a stronger start in reading, regardless of whether they began the year low-, average-, or high-performers.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L.S., Thompson, A., Yen, L., Al Otaiba, S., Nyman, K., Svenson, E., Yang, N., Prentice, K., Kazdan, S., & Saentz, L. (2001). Peer-assisted learning strategies in reading: Extensions for kindergarten, first grade, and high school. Remedial and Special Education, 22, 15-21.

Describes the collaborative process between teachers and researchers, which was used to develop PALS, and explains the PALS methods at kindergarten and high school.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., & Kazdan, S. (1999). Effects of peer-assisted learning strategies on high-school students with serious reading problems. Remedial and Special Education, 20, 309-318.

Describes a study examining the effectiveness of PALS with high-school students with serious reading problems; results provide evidence that High-School PALS helps students improve their reading comprehension.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Kazdan, S., & Allen, S. (l999). Effects of peer-assisted learning strategies in reading with and without training in elaborated help giving. Elementary School Journal, 99, 201-219.

Reports a study that examined the contribution of student training in elaborated help giving within reading PALS; results showed that (a) at the intermediate grades, elaborated help giving, in which students helped partners figure out unknown words and main ideas on their own, enhanced reading achievement, but (b) at the primary grades, students achieved better with the standard PALS, without the addition of elaborated help-giving strategies.

Locke, W.R., & Fuchs, L.S. (l995). Effects of peer-mediated reading instruction on the on-task behavior and social interactions of children with behavior disorders. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 3, 92-99.

Reports the effects of PALS on the on-task behavior and social interactions of children with behavior disorders served in a self-contained classroom.

Mathes, P.G., Howard, J.K., Allen, S.H., & Fuchs, D. (l998). Peer-assisted learning strategies for first-grade readers: Responding to the needs of diverse learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 33, 62-94.

Reports a study examining the effectiveness of reading PALS at the first-grade level; findings support the efficacy of PALS for low- and average-performing first graders and documents that PALS does not harm high-achieving first graders.

McMaster, K.N., Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L.S. (in press). Research on peer-assisted learning strategies: Promise and limitations on peer mediation. Reading and Writing Quarterly.

A review of the promises and limitations of “best practices” like PALS.

McMaster, K.N., Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L.S. (2002). Monitoring the academic progress of children who are unresponsive to generally effective instruction. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 27(4), 23-33.

Detailed description of how CBM may be used to identify nonresponders to PALS instruction.

Saddler, B, Asaro, K., & Behforooz, Bita, (2008). The Effects of Peer-Assisted Sentence-Combining Practice on Four Young Writers with Learning Disabilities, Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 6(1), 17-31

In this study sentence-combining practice with a peer-assistance component was used to improve the ability of four young students with LD to construct sentences and compose stories. Results support the use of sentence-combining practice to increase sentence-construction ability

Simmons, D., Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L.S., Pate, J., & Mathes, P. (l994). Importance of instructional complexity and role reciprocity to classwide peer tutoring. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 9, 203-212.

Reports a study examining the effects of role reciprocity and of standard classwide peer tutoring achievement versus PALS strategic reading behaviors; results favored role reciprocity and PALS strategic reading behaviors on comprehension outcomes.

Simmons, D., Fuchs, L., & Fuchs, D. (l995).

Effects of explicit teaching and peer tutoring on the reading achievement of learning disabled and low-performing students in regular classrooms. Elementary School Journal, 95, 387-408.

Sutherland, K.S & Snyder A (2007). Effects of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring and Self-Graphing on Reading Fluency and Classroom Behavior of Middle School Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders, Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders,, 15 (2),103-118.

Examines the effects of an intervention involving reciprocal peer tutoring and self-graphing of reading data on the disruptive behavior, active responding and reading fluency of students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Results indicated during the intervention phase students’ disruptive behavior decreased and active responding increased. Each student made progress on words ready correctly per minute.

Math Research

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C.L., Phillips, N.B., & Bentz, J. (l994). Classwide curriculum-based measurement: Helping general educators meet the challenge of student diversity. Exceptional Children, 60, 518-537.

Reports a study contrasting the effects of CBM versus CBM plus peer tutoring versus standard treatment within general education classrooms; results document the value added of peer tutoring used in conjunction with CBM for students with LD and for other low- and average-achieving students.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C.L., Phillips, N.B., & Karns, K. (l995). General educators’ specialized adaptation for students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 61, 440-459.

Reports a study that examined general educators’ specialized adaptation for students with learning disabilities, in conjunction with peer-assisted learning strategies and curriculum-based measurement, is presented; results showed that (a) teachers who were provided with support to implement adaptations engaged in specialized adaptation and their thinking about how they planned for their students with LD changed and (b) although some teachers implemented substantively important, individually tailored adjustments, others relied on adaptations that were uninventive and limited.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C.L., Phillips, N.B., Karns, K., & Dutka, S. (l997). Enhancing students’ helping behavior during peer-mediated instruction with conceptual mathematical explanations. Elementary School Journal, 97, 223-249.

Presents a study examining the added-value of preparing students to formulate conceptual mathematical explanations during PALS; results showed that (a) students with LD, as well as other low-, average-, and high-performing classmates, provided better explanations more when taught to formulate conceptual explanations, and (b) students who were taught methods to formulate conceptual mathematical explanations achieved better in mathematics. Based on the study, PALS incorporates training for students in formulating conceptual mathematical explanations.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., & Karns, K. (2001). Enhancing kindergartener’s mathematical development: Effects of peer-assisted learning strategies. Elementary School Journal, 101, (5), 495-510.

Describes a study examining the effectiveness of PALS with kindergarten children; results provide evidence that PALS helps children get off to a stronger start in math, regardless of whether they began the year low-, average-, and high-performers.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Phillips, N.B., Hamlett, C.L., & Karns, K. (l995). Acquisition and transfer effects of classwide peer-assisted learning strategies in mathematics for students with varying learning histories. School Psychology Review, 24, 604-620.

Reports a study that examined the effects of peer-assisted learning strategies and curriculum-based measurement on the acquisition and transfer learning of three types of students; results indicated (a) superior mathematics growth for students in the PALS/CBM condition and (b) the need for additional research on low-achieving and learning disabled students’ transfer from the operations tutoring content to the broader mathematics curriculum.

Phillips, N.B., Fuchs, L.S., & Fuchs, D. (l994). Effects of classwide curriculum-based measurement and peer tutoring: A collaborative researcher-practitioner interview study. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 420-434.

Explains the math PALS methods and reports a study that examined teachers’ perspectives on PALS effectiveness.

Phillips, N.B., Hamlett, C.L., Fuchs, L.S., & Fuchs, D. (l993). Combining classwide curriculum-based measurement and peer tutoring to help general educators provide adaptive education. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 8, 148-156.

Provides an overview of the math PALS methods for practitioners, with a brief summary of an efficacy study.

Curriculum Based Measurement Research

Fuchs, L.S., & Deno, S.L. (l991). Paradigmatic distinctions between instructionally relevant measurement models. Exceptional Children, 57, 488-501.

Explains how CBM differs from most other forms of classroom-based assessment.

Fuchs, L.S., & Deno, S.L. (l994). Must instructionally useful performance assessment be based in the curriculum? Exceptional Children, 61, 15-24.

Examines the importance of sampling testing material from the students’ instructional curricula; concludes that sampling from the curriculum is not essential; and proposes three features critical to insure the instructional utility of measurement.

Fuchs, L.S., & Fuchs, D. (l992). Identifying a measure for monitoring student reading progress. School Psychology Review, 58, 45-58.

Summarizes the program of research conducted to explore CBM reading measures other than reading aloud.

Fuchs, L.S., & Fuchs, D. (l996). Combining performance assessment and curriculum-based measurement to strengthen instructional planning. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 11, 183-192.

Explores the coordinated use of performance assessment and curriculum-based measurement, with the goal of helping teachers adopt a balanced, blended approach to assessment that permits the identification of skills for explicit instruction while emphasizing the application of knowledge within rich, authentic situations.

Fuchs, L.S., & Fuchs, D. (l998). Treatment validity: A unifying concept for reconceptualizing the identification of learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 13, 204-219.

Summarizes a substantial portion of the research base on the technical features and instructional utility of CBM; provides a framework for using CBM within a treatment validity approach to LD identification, within which students are identified for special education when their level of achievement and rate of improvement is substantially below that of classroom peers and when, despite intervention efforts, they remain resistant to treatment.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C.L. (l993). Technological advances linking the assessment of students’ academic proficiency to instructional planning. Journal of Special Education Technology, 12, 49-62.

Summarizes the program of research conducted on computer applications to CBM.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C.L. (l994). Strengthening the connection between assessment and instructional planning with expert systems. Exceptional Children, 61, 138-146.

Summarizes the program of research conducted on expert systems used in conjunction with CBM to enhance teachers’ capacity to use classroom-based assessment to improve planning and increase student learning.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C.L., Phillips, N.B., & Karns, K. (l995). General educators’ specialized adaptation for students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 61, 440-459.

Reports a study that examined general educators’ specialized adaptation for students with learning disabilities, in conjunction with peer-assisted learning strategies and curriculum-based measurement, is presented; findings revealed that (a) teachers who were provided with support to implement adaptations engaged differentially in specialized adaptation and their thinking about how they planned for their students with LD changed and (b) although some teachers implemented substantively important, individually tailored adjustments, others relied on adaptations that were uninventive and limited.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C.L., & Stecker, P.M. (l991). Effects of curriculum-based measurement and consultation on teacher planning and student achievement in mathematics operations. American Educational Research Journal, 28, 617-641.

Reports an experimental study contrasting CBM, CBM with expert systems, and standard treatment; results showed the importance of helping teachers translate classroom-based assessment information via instructional consultation.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C.L., Thompson, A., Roberts, P.H., Kubek, P., & Stecker, P.S. (l994). Technical features of a mathematics concepts and applications curriculum-based measurement system. Diagnostique, 19(4), 23-49.

Reports a study investigating the reliability and validity of a CBM system focused on the concepts and applications mathematics curriculum; results supported the technical adequacy of the CBM graphed scores as well as the CBM diagnostic skills analysis.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C.L., Walz, L., & Germann, G. (l993). Formative evaluation of academic progress: How much growth can we expect? School Psychology Review, 22, 27-48.

Reports normative information on CBM slopes in reading, spelling, and math expected for typically-developing students.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Karns, K., Hamlett, C.L., Dutka, S., & Katzaroff, M. (2000). The importance of providing background information on the structure and scoring of performance assessments. Applied Measurement in Education, 13, 1-34.

Reports development of curriculum-based measurement problem-solving assessment system, reliability and validity data supporting use of that system, and effects of a study examining the effects of test-wiseness training on scores for low-, average-, and high-performing students.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Karns, K., Hamlett, C.L., & Katzaroff, M. (1999). Mathematics performance assessment in the classroom: Effects on teacher planning and student problem solving. American Educational Research Journal, 36, (3), 609-646.

Reports the findings of a study examining teachers’ use of a curriculum-based measurement problem-solving system. Teachers were assigned randomly to CBM or control conditions; teachers administered and scored three performance assessments at monthly intervals and planned instruction in response to the assessment feedback. Teachers’ knowledge of performance assessment, their curricular focus, and their instructional plans were described. Outcomes on three types of problem-solving assessments for low-, average-, and high-performing students were assessed.

Phillips, N.B., Hamlett, C.L., Fuchs, L.S., & Fuchs, D. (l993). Combining classwide curriculum-based measurement and peer tutoring to help general educators provide adaptive education. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 8, 148-156.

Provides an overview of the math PALS methods for practitioners, with a brief summary of an efficacy study.

PALS Training Workshops

We recommend that teachers participate in a one-day PALS Training Workshop.

Our workshops are designed to help teachers learn how to effectively implement their PALS Reading or Math teaching materials in the classroom.

More about PALS Training Workshops